Cuba is a unitary republic with a centrally planned economy that is divided into provinces and municipalities. The allocation of the municipal budget depends on the approval of the Provincial Assembly, which indicates that the municipalities' own resources and taxation powers are still largely under the authority of the central government. However, in recent years, with the creation of the Territorial Development Policy, an attempt has been made to strengthen the municipalities with strategies and principles that promote their autonomy and reduce inequality among them.
In Cuba, several instruments of territorial ordering have been developed: schemes, policies, and plans. Their elaboration and monitoring are the responsibility of the Institute of Physical Planning. Cuba has assumed the challenge of implementing the New Urban Agenda in the national context, which is reflected in the State Plan for the New Urban Agenda 2036. In general, territorial planning instruments are based on the Guidelines of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution for the period 2016-2021, together with the Conceptualization of the Cuban Economic and Social Model of Socialist Development and the Bases of the National Plan of Economic and Social Development until 2030. Decision-making capacity in land use is centralized and most of the instruments are at the national level, although the provinces and municipalities are increasingly involved in carrying out land use plans and schemes.