State type
Type of government
República Federal
Administrative Division

National Level

Gobierno Federal

Intermediate/Regional Level

Estados Federales 32

Local Level

Municipios 2479

Official names of subnational and local governments

Gobierno Nacional: La Federación o Estado Federal.

Nivel Regional: Entidades Federativas o Estados Federales.

Nivel municipal: Municipios o Alcaldías en Ciudad de México.

National Urban Policy

  • The National Land Management Strategy (ENOT) is proposed as the guiding instrument that, under a systemic approach, configures the spatial and territorial dimension of Mexico's development in a long-term horizon towards 2020-2040. The ENOT lays out the foundations for the State's steering role in national land-use planning policy. The ENOT contains more than 400 Regional Guidelines and 76 General Guidelines grouped in 10 Priority Objectives and 3 National Axes: territorial structuring, development and governance.

    In addition to the ENOT, Mexico also has the National Program for Territorial Planning and Urban Development (PNOTDU) 2021- 2024, a planning instrument determined in the General Law of Human Settlements and Territorial Planning, which is consistent with the National Development Plan 2019-2024 and the ENOT 2020-2040.

    National urban policy type:
    Partial - Territorial Plan
    Policy temporality:
  • Mexico is a Federal Republic made up of two subnational levels of government: the Federative Entities (States) and the Municipalities.
    Both the National Political Constitution and the State Constitutions recognize municipalities as free and with autonomy to administer their Municipal Treasury. The national legislation provides general guidelines for the Municipal Tax System, but its regulation is determined by local norms (State Constitutions, Organic Laws, of Finance and Municipal Revenues, among others).
    One of the main sources of resources for subnational governments (NSGs) are federal transfers, which are mainly composed of Federal Participation and Contributions, regulated mainly by the System and Fiscal Coordination Agreements. 
    Regarding own resources, the Municipalities can tax real estate through taxes and contributions and can set bases and rates with the authorization of the Local Assembly. Local governments also have income from the rights, products and uses that they set.
    In addition, they can access other financing mechanisms for their urban development, through internal debt, which is also regulated with local standards, private investments, and international cooperation funds.

  • Mexico is a federal country with three levels of government: national, states, and municipalities. Compared to other federal countries, the national government has a greater influence on issues related to land use and land use planning. The Mexican constitution specifies that the municipalities are the authorities in charge of planning and can decide on land use as long as they take into account other constitutional provisions and guidelines of the higher levels of government.